Register training material
78 materials found

Content provider: ELIXIR Luxembourg  or Bioinformatics Visualization 


Practicalities of data handling

Slides for the "Practicalities of data handling" session of the "Research Data Management and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg.

Scientific topics: Data management, Data acquisition, Data security

Operations: Data handling

Keywords: data encryption, data protection, setup, checksums, Data transfer, Data storage, data organisation

Resource type: Presentation

Practicalities of data handling http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/practicalities-of-data-handling Slides for the "Practicalities of data handling" session of the "Research Data Management and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg. Pinar Alper Roland Krause Nene Barry Data management Data acquisition Data security data encryption, data protection, setup, checksums, Data transfer, Data storage, data organisation Researchers PhD Master students
Reproducible analysis

Slides for the "Reproducible analysis" session of the "Best practices in research data management and stewardship" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg.

Scientific topics: Data architecture, analysis and design

Keywords: Workflows, Literate programming, Reproducible Science, Data analysis

Resource type: Presentation

Reproducible analysis http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/reproducible-analysis Slides for the "Reproducible analysis" session of the "Best practices in research data management and stewardship" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg. Pinar Alper Vilem Ded Data architecture, analysis and design Workflows, Literate programming, Reproducible Science, Data analysis PhD candidates Researchers
Data Management Planning

Slides for the Data Management Plannning session of the "Research Data Manegement and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg

Keywords: Data management plan

Resource type: Presentation

Data Management Planning http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/data-management-planning Slides for the Data Management Plannning session of the "Research Data Manegement and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg Data management plan Researchers data steward / data manager PhD candidates Master students
Introduction to FAIR principles

Slides for the "Introduction to FAIR Principles" session of the "Research Data Manegement and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg.

Keywords: FAIR data

Resource type: Presentation

Introduction to FAIR principles http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/introduction-to-fair-principles Slides for the "Introduction to FAIR Principles" session of the "Research Data Manegement and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg. Roland Krause FAIR data Researchers data steward / data manager PhD candidates Master students
Implementing GDPR in a Biomedical Research Institute

Slides for the "Data protection, working with sensitive human data in research." session of the "Research Data Management and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg.

Scientific topics: Data management, Data governance

Keywords: GDPR, data protection, sensitive data

Implementing GDPR in a Biomedical Research Institute http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/implementing-gdpr-in-a-biomedical-research-institute Slides for the "Data protection, working with sensitive human data in research." session of the "Research Data Management and Stewardship Training" held regularly by ELIXIR-Luxembourg. Regina Becker Vilem Ded Data management Data governance GDPR, data protection, sensitive data Researchers data stewards data managers
ELIXIR Webinar: Requirements in data protection law and the upcoming General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) implementation

Regina Becker (ELIXIR Luxembourg) will give an introduction into the upcoming General Data Protection Legislation (GDPR) that will come into force on 25 May 2018. The new regulation has considerable consequences for managing and storing personal data, imposing more responsibility on the data...

Keywords: GDPR

Resource type: Webinar

ELIXIR Webinar: Requirements in data protection law and the upcoming General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) implementation http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/elixir-webinar-requirements-in-data-protection-law-and-the-upcoming-general-data-protection-regulation-gdpr-implementation Regina Becker (ELIXIR Luxembourg) will give an introduction into the upcoming General Data Protection Legislation (GDPR) that will come into force on 25 May 2018. The new regulation has considerable consequences for managing and storing personal data, imposing more responsibility on the data controllers and data processors. During the webinar, relevant parts of the legislation for research and data sharing will be highlighted. Practical consequences for research institutions and in particular ELIXIR Nodes will be explained, and measures outlined that should be implemented for compliance. In addition, challenges and open questions will be addressed and suggestions made on how to jointly tackle these challenges in ELIXIR. This webinar is of interest for data stewards, Technical Coordinators, and everyone interested in the requirements for processing data for research under the GDPR. GDPR
Introducing Bivi.co

Introduction to the Bivi community presented as the introductory talk at the 1st Bivi Annual Meeting. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics, Pathway or network

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations

Resource type: Video

Introducing Bivi.co http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/introducing-bivi-co Introduction to the Bivi community presented as the introductory talk at the 1st Bivi Annual Meeting. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Prof. Jessie Kennedy Phylogenetics Pathway or network Anatomy Physiology and Atlases, Cells and Organisms, Genome, Molecular, Pathway, Phylogenetics, Populations 2016-12-08
Jalview

Dr James Proctor of the University of Dundee discusses the Jalview tool in the Vis Tools & Bio Challenges session of the 1st BiVi Annual Meeting Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics

Keywords: Genome, Molecular, Phylogenetics

Resource type: Poster, Video

Jalview http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/jalview Dr James Proctor of the University of Dundee discusses the Jalview tool in the Vis Tools & Bio Challenges session of the 1st BiVi Annual Meeting Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Dr. Jim Procter Jalview Coordinator Phylogenetics Genome, Molecular, Phylogenetics 2016-12-08
Validation and Visualisation of Electron Microscopy Density Fits

Poster presentation by Dr Maya Topf at 1st BiVi Annual Meeting in 2014 Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Resource type: Poster

Validation and Visualisation of Electron Microscopy Density Fits http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/validation-and-visualisation-of-electron-microscopy-density-fits Poster presentation by Dr Maya Topf at 1st BiVi Annual Meeting in 2014 Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Prof. Maya Topf 2016-12-08
BiVi Genomes theme

Prof David Burt introduces the Genomes theme in bio-visualisation. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting.

Scientific topics: Phylogenetics

Keywords: Genome, Phylogenetics

Resource type: Video

BiVi Genomes theme http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/bivi-genomes-theme Prof David Burt introduces the Genomes theme in bio-visualisation. Created at: 1st BiVi Annual Meeting. Prof. David Willaim Burt PhD BSc FSB Phylogenetics Genome, Phylogenetics 2016-12-08
Visualization of Epigenetic Data

Esther Rheinbay (http://csb.mgh.harvard.edu/bradley_bernstein) talks about the current challenges of visualizing rapidly expanding epigenetic data and showcases some of the different tools which are available to researchers as part of the Integrative Genome Viewer...

Keywords: Genome, Molecular

Resource type: Video

Visualization of Epigenetic Data http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/visualization-of-epigenetic-data Esther Rheinbay (http://csb.mgh.harvard.edu/bradley_bernstein) talks about the current challenges of visualizing rapidly expanding epigenetic data and showcases some of the different tools which are available to researchers as part of the Integrative Genome Viewer (http://www.broadinstitute.org/igv/), the Roadmap Epigenomics Project (http://www.roadmapepigenomics.org/) and ECODE project (http://genome.ucsc.edu/encode/). This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Genome, Molecular 2017-01-31
Keynote on Visual Analytics & Human/Computer Interfaces

Sara Irina Fabrikant discusses how analysis of scientific data can be enhanced using information visualization, visual analytics, cognition principles, and graphical user interface design. She focuses on the use of evaluation to valid visualization approaches. This talk was presented at VIZBI...

Keywords: Information visualisation

Resource type: Video

Keynote on Visual Analytics & Human/Computer Interfaces http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/keynote-on-visual-analytics-amp-human-computer-interfaces Sara Irina Fabrikant discusses how analysis of scientific data can be enhanced using information visualization, visual analytics, cognition principles, and graphical user interface design. She focuses on the use of evaluation to valid visualization approaches. This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Information visualisation 2017-01-31
Epigenome Browser

Ting Wang (http://wang.wustl.edu/) addresses many of the challenges of navigating the complexity of genomic data and showcases the WashU Epigenome Browser that he is developing. The browser aims to give investigators maximum flexibility to explore and navigate the available genomic data in...

Keywords: Genome, Molecular

Resource type: Slideshow, Video

Epigenome Browser http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/epigenome-browser Ting Wang (http://wang.wustl.edu/) addresses many of the challenges of navigating the complexity of genomic data and showcases the WashU Epigenome Browser that he is developing. The browser aims to give investigators maximum flexibility to explore and navigate the available genomic data in multiple tracks, upload their own data as well as explore long-range interactions. He also highlights the need for the genome browsers to act as community resources and bioinformatics engines with the ability to analyse the mined data. This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Dr. Ting Wang Genome, Molecular 2017-01-31
Browsing 3D Genomes

Jim Zheng (http://www.uthouston.edu/sbmi/faculty-and-staff/jim-zheng.htm) talks about the importance of understanding the 3D structure of genome and gives an introduction into Genome3D framework (http://www.genome3d.org/) which allows integration of multi-scale structural and genomic data within...

Keywords: Genome, Molecular

Resource type: Video

Browsing 3D Genomes http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/browsing-3d-genomes Jim Zheng (http://www.uthouston.edu/sbmi/faculty-and-staff/jim-zheng.htm) talks about the importance of understanding the 3D structure of genome and gives an introduction into Genome3D framework (http://www.genome3d.org/) which allows integration of multi-scale structural and genomic data within 3D. This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Genome, Molecular 2017-01-31
enRoute: BioVis Best Paper

Alexander Lex (http://alexander-lex.com/) talks about enRoute, a tool for dynamic path extraction from biological pathway maps for in-depth experimental data analysis. He highlights the inherent problem with correlating real-life heterogeneous data to pathways, namely that they rarely follow the...

Scientific topics: Pathway or network

Keywords: Pathway

Resource type: Video

enRoute: BioVis Best Paper http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/enroute-biovis-best-paper Alexander Lex (http://alexander-lex.com/) talks about enRoute, a tool for dynamic path extraction from biological pathway maps for in-depth experimental data analysis. He highlights the inherent problem with correlating real-life heterogeneous data to pathways, namely that they rarely follow the same topography. enRoute tool allows the investigator to select defined sections of the pathway and display them in a linear fashion to allow for easier navigation of collated data. This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Dr. Alexander Lex Pathway or network Pathway 2017-01-31
Visualizing RNA Structures and Alignments

Paul Gardner (http://www.biol.canterbury.ac.nz/people/gardner.shtml) talks about the challenges of visualization of RNA Structures and Alignments in the context of Rfam database (http://rfam.sanger.ac.uk/), a collection of non-coding RNAs, structured cis-regulatory elements and self-splicing...

Keywords: Genome, Molecular

Resource type: Video

Visualizing RNA Structures and Alignments http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/visualizing-rna-structures-and-alignments Paul Gardner (http://www.biol.canterbury.ac.nz/people/gardner.shtml) talks about the challenges of visualization of RNA Structures and Alignments in the context of Rfam database (http://rfam.sanger.ac.uk/), a collection of non-coding RNAs, structured cis-regulatory elements and self-splicing RNAs. This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Genome, Molecular 2017-01-31
Non-coding RNA

Gisela Storz (http://irp.nih.gov/pi/gisela-storz) talks about the reliability and co-relation of anti-sense RNA sequence data. Comparison of RNA seq data across different experiments and from various sources reveals some discrepancies and lack of overlap. While the majority of RNA seq data is...

Keywords: Genome, Molecular

Resource type: Video

Non-coding RNA http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/non-coding-rna Gisela Storz (http://irp.nih.gov/pi/gisela-storz) talks about the reliability and co-relation of anti-sense RNA sequence data. Comparison of RNA seq data across different experiments and from various sources reveals some discrepancies and lack of overlap. While the majority of RNA seq data is robust and reliable, low abundance transcripts can be difficult to account for and the variations in experimental as well as computational conditions can lead to vastly different data.This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Genome, Molecular 2017-01-31
Visualizing Protein Structures and Features

Sean O'Donoghue (http://odonoghuelab.org) talks about molecular spatial data and the emerging issue of sequence-structure gap mainly due to experimental difficulties in obtaining reliable (or any) structure information for a given protein. In his talk, he also gives a brief demonstration of...

Keywords: Molecular

Resource type: Video

Visualizing Protein Structures and Features http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/visualizing-protein-structures-and-features Sean O'Donoghue (http://odonoghuelab.org) talks about molecular spatial data and the emerging issue of sequence-structure gap mainly due to experimental difficulties in obtaining reliable (or any) structure information for a given protein. In his talk, he also gives a brief demonstration of Aquaria (http://aquaria.ws), a web-based 3D molecular structure visualization tool that combines data from various databases and allows investigators to easily view and explore proteins and protein-protein interactions.This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Dr. Sean I O’Donoghue Molecular 2017-01-31
RNA-Seq

Cole Trapnell (http://www.broadinstitute.org/~cole/) focuses on isoform-resolution analysis of RNA -seq. RNA-seq is an assay used to determine the abundance of RNA transcripts in a transcriptome, the results of which can be used for gene discovery and expression analysis. In his talk Cole...

Keywords: Genome

Resource type: Video

RNA-Seq http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/rna-seq Cole Trapnell (http://www.broadinstitute.org/~cole/) focuses on isoform-resolution analysis of RNA -seq. RNA-seq is an assay used to determine the abundance of RNA transcripts in a transcriptome, the results of which can be used for gene discovery and expression analysis. In his talk Cole highlights the inherent challenges associated with the analysis of isoform-resolution data and proposes several different areas that are open for improvement.This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Genome 2017-01-31
Comparison and assemblies

Thomas Ferrin (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/home/tef/) talks about visualization tools for interactive modeling of biological structures with an emphasis on Chimera (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/), an extensible molecular modeling software.This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international...

Keywords: Molecular

Resource type: Video

Comparison and assemblies http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/comparison-and-assemblies Thomas Ferrin (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/home/tef/) talks about visualization tools for interactive modeling of biological structures with an emphasis on Chimera (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/), an extensible molecular modeling software.This talk was presented at VIZBI 2013, an international conference series on visualizing biological data (http://vizbi.org). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Prof. Thomas Ferrin Molecular 2017-01-31
Visualizing odors with insect brains

Martin Strauch presents a brief overview of his BioVis 2012 Honorable Mention paper on visualising odors with insect brains.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013.

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases

Resource type: Video

Visualizing odors with insect brains http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/visualizing-odors-with-insect-brains Martin Strauch presents a brief overview of his BioVis 2012 Honorable Mention paper on visualising odors with insect brains.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Martin Strauch Anatomy Physiology and Atlases 2017-01-31
Evolution of Protein Structure and Function

Ian Sillitoe (http://orengogroup.info/) talks about the protein structure classification with particular emphasis on superfamily-centric taxonomy which is used in the CATH (http://www.cathdb.info/) database.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons...

Keywords: Molecular

Resource type: Video

Evolution of Protein Structure and Function http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/evolution-of-protein-structure-and-function Ian Sillitoe (http://orengogroup.info/) talks about the protein structure classification with particular emphasis on superfamily-centric taxonomy which is used in the CATH (http://www.cathdb.info/) database.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Molecular 2017-01-31
Data visualization in proteomics

Martin Miller talks about visualization of proteome data with particular emphasis on modeling phosphorylation sites. He gives a brief introduction into different methods for the analysis of the single cell proteome from antibody-based methods to mass spectrometry and fluorescence tagging. With...

Keywords: Molecular

Resource type: Video

Data visualization in proteomics http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/data-visualization-in-proteomics Martin Miller talks about visualization of proteome data with particular emphasis on modeling phosphorylation sites. He gives a brief introduction into different methods for the analysis of the single cell proteome from antibody-based methods to mass spectrometry and fluorescence tagging. With the onset of targeted and shot-gun mass spectrometry, there is an increasing amount of proteomics data which will need to be classified, integrated and available for analysis in a meaningful and accessible manner.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Molecular 2017-01-31
Biological Networks

Scooter Morris (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/home/scooter/) talks about the opportunities and challenges in mapping biological networks and gives an brief overview of Cytoscape (http://www.cytoscape.org/), an open source bioinformatics software platform for visualizing molecular interaction...

Scientific topics: Pathway or network

Keywords: Cells and Organisms, Pathway

Resource type: Video

Biological Networks http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/biological-networks Scooter Morris (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/home/scooter/) talks about the opportunities and challenges in mapping biological networks and gives an brief overview of Cytoscape (http://www.cytoscape.org/), an open source bioinformatics software platform for visualizing molecular interaction networks.(PLEASE NOTE: There is a small formatting problem with the presentation slides for the first 2 min of the talk only). This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Dr. Scooter Morris Pathway or network Cells and Organisms, Pathway 2017-01-31
Keynote on Visual Design Principles

Martin Krzywinski (http://mkweb.bcgsc.ca/) gives a great primer on the key principles of effective visual design in biological sciences. During the talk he highlights the principles with examples from various peer-reviewed publications and discusses the practical aspects of effective figure...

Keywords: Genome, HCI, Information visualisation, Communication

Resource type: Video

Keynote on Visual Design Principles http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/keynote-on-visual-design-principles Martin Krzywinski (http://mkweb.bcgsc.ca/) gives a great primer on the key principles of effective visual design in biological sciences. During the talk he highlights the principles with examples from various peer-reviewed publications and discusses the practical aspects of effective figure design.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Martin Krzywinski Genome, HCI, Information visualisation, Communication 2017-01-31
Cellular Image Data

Peter Sorger (http://sorger.med.harvard.edu/) and Bang Wong (http://bang.clearscience.info/) talk about the challenges of visualising large sets of multidimensional data (e.g. single cell imaging, dose-response assays, multiplex biochemistry etc.).This video was filmed and distributed with...

Keywords: Cells and Organisms

Resource type: Video

Cellular Image Data http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/cellular-image-data Peter Sorger (http://sorger.med.harvard.edu/) and Bang Wong (http://bang.clearscience.info/) talk about the challenges of visualising large sets of multidimensional data (e.g. single cell imaging, dose-response assays, multiplex biochemistry etc.).This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Bang Wong Cells and Organisms 2017-01-31
Keynote on Communicating Science Visually

Felice Frankel delivers her keynote address in which she talks about how to effectively use visual tools to communicate science.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013.

Keywords: Communication

Resource type: Video

Keynote on Communicating Science Visually http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/keynote-on-communicating-science-visually Felice Frankel delivers her keynote address in which she talks about how to effectively use visual tools to communicate science.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Communication 2017-01-31
Developmental Anatomy

Sean Megason (http://megason.med.harvard.edu/) talks about the challenges and caveats of multiscale imaging, visualisation and analysis and highlights some of the tools that are used for processing and analysis of in toto imaging such as GoFigure2 (http://www.gofigure2.org/) and ACME...

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases

Resource type: Video

Developmental Anatomy http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/developmental-anatomy Sean Megason (http://megason.med.harvard.edu/) talks about the challenges and caveats of multiscale imaging, visualisation and analysis and highlights some of the tools that are used for processing and analysis of in toto imaging such as GoFigure2 (http://www.gofigure2.org/) and ACME (https://wiki.med.harvard.edu/SysBio/Megason/ACME).  This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Anatomy Physiology and Atlases 2017-01-31
Physiology & Function

Daniel Haehn talks about visualising medical and scientific data (such as MRI and CT scans, microscopy scan stacks etc.) in 3D and introduces some of the open-source tools available.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Common license. Created at: VIZBI 2013.

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases

Resource type: Video

Physiology & Function http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/physiology-amp-function Daniel Haehn talks about visualising medical and scientific data (such as MRI and CT scans, microscopy scan stacks etc.) in 3D and introduces some of the open-source tools available.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Common license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Anatomy Physiology and Atlases 2017-01-31
Genes into Geometry

Mark Henkelman gives an introduction on the use of 3D imaging in neuroanatomy to explore consequences of genetic alterations on anatomical structures and infer function.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013.

Keywords: Anatomy Physiology and Atlases

Resource type: Video

Genes into Geometry http://tess.elixir-uk.org/materials/genes-into-geometry Mark Henkelman gives an introduction on the use of 3D imaging in neuroanatomy to explore consequences of genetic alterations on anatomical structures and infer function.This video was filmed and distributed with permission under a Creative Commons license. Created at: VIZBI 2013. Anatomy Physiology and Atlases 2017-01-31